Utqiagvik (Inupiaq: Utqiaġvik, IPA: [utqe.ɑʁvik], English: /ˌʊtkiˈɑːvɪk/ UUT-kee-AH-vik), officially the City of Utqiaġvik, formerly known as Barrow (/ˈbæroʊ/), is the largest city and the borough seat of the North Slope Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska and is located north of the Arctic Circle. It is one of the northernmost public communities in the world and is the northernmost city in the United States. Nearby Point Barrow is the country’s northernmost point. Utqiagvik’s population was 4,581 at the 2000 census and 4,212 at the 2010 census.
Utqiagvik is roughly 1,300 miles (2,100 km) south of the North Pole. Only 2.6% of the Earth’s surface lies as far and farther from the equator as Utqiagvik.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21 sq mi (54 km), 18 sq mi (47 km) of the area being land and 3 sq mi (8 km) being water. Water makes up 14% of the total area. The predominant land type in Utqiagvik is tundra, which is formed over a permafrost layer that is as much as 1,300 feet (400 m) in depth.
Utqiagvik is surrounded by the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska.
The city of Utqiagvik has three sections, which can be classified as south, central, and north, and are known to residents as Utqiagvik, Browerville, and NARL, respectively.
An ancient 5.0 mi (8 km)-sized crater, Avak, is situated near Utqiagvik.
The City of Utqiaġvik first appeared on the 1880 U.S. Census as the unincorporated Inuit village of “Ootiwakh.” All 225 of its residents were Inuit. In 1890, the community and area was returned as the “Cape Smythe Settlements”, which was including the refuge & whaling stations, Pengnok, Utkeavie, Kugaru (Inaru) River villages, 4 other camps & Whaling Steamer Balaena. Of those 246 residents, 189 were natives, 46 were White, 1 was Asian and 10 were other races. This did not include nearby Point Barrow, which was a separate community. In 1900, it reported again as “Cape Smythe Settlements.” In 1910, it first reported as Barrow, and in every successive census to 2010. It formally incorporated in 1959. The native name of Utqiaġvik was adopted in 2016 and will appear on the 2020 census.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,212 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 60.5% Alaskan Native, 16.2% Caucasian, 0.9% African, 8.9% Asian, 2.3% Pacific Islander and 8.1% from two or more races. 3.1% were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,683 people, 1,399 households, and 976 families residing in the city. The population density was 249.0 people per square mile (96.1/km). There were 1,620 housing units at an average density of 88.1 per square mile (34.0/km). The racial makeup of the city is 57.19% Alaska Native, 21.83% White, 9.41% Asian, 1.00% Black or African American, 1.35% Pacific Islander, 0.70% from other races, and 8.51% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 3.34% of the population.
There were 1,399 households out of which 56.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.0% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.35 and the average family size was 4.80.
In Utqiagvik, the age distribution shows 27.7% under the age of 18, 13.3% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, and 3.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $63,094.09, and the median income for a family was $68,223. Males had a median income of $51,959 versus $46,382 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,902. About 7.7% of families and 8.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.2% of those under the age of 18 and 13.12% of those 65 and older.
As of March 3, 2009, the town’s website wrote of the population: “The largest city in the North Slope Borough, Utqiagvik has 4,429 residents, of which approximately 61% are Iñupiat Eskimo.”
Barrow Alaska neighborhoods include: Anchorage, Anchor Point, Chiniak, Chugiak, Clam Gulch, Cooper Landing, Delta Junction, Douglas, Eagle River, Eielson Afb, Elmendorf Afb, Fairbanks, Fort Richardson, Girdwood, Haines, Homer, Indian, Juneau, Kasilof, Kenai, Ketchikan, Kodiak, Metlakatla, Moose Pass, Nikolaevsk, Ninilchik, North Pole, Salcha, Seward, Sitka, Soldotna, Sterling, Tyonek, Wasilla